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Flat Feet: Understanding Diagnosis and Treatment Options



Flat feet, also known as pes planus, is a common condition characterized by the absence or low arches of the inner foot when standing. While flat feet may not always cause symptoms, some individuals may experience discomfort, pain, or difficulty with walking or standing for long periods. Often times people who are born with flat feet can be treated / managed successfully with conservative care. If you are an adult however and you feet go from having a normal arch to flat, this could point to a developing underlying pathology and should be looked at by a podiatrist. Fortunately, there are various diagnosis and treatment options available, ranging from conservative measures to surgical interventions, to address flat feet effectively.


Diagnosis: Diagnosing flat feet typically involves a comprehensive evaluation by a healthcare professional, such as a podiatrist or orthopedic specialist. During the evaluation, the healthcare provider will assess the patient's medical history, symptoms, and perform a physical examination of the feet and lower limbs. Diagnostic tests such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans may be ordered to evaluate the structure of the foot and assess for any underlying abnormalities or conditions contributing to flat feet. Additionally, a gait analysis may be conducted to evaluate the patient's walking pattern and biomechanics.


Conservative Treatment: Conservative treatment options are often recommended as the first line of management for flat feet, particularly if the symptoms are mild to moderate. These may include:

  • Orthotic Devices: Custom foot orthotics or arch supports are often prescribed to provide support and alignment to the feet, reduce excessive pronation, and alleviate pain or discomfort associated with flat feet.

  • Footwear Modification: Wearing properly fitting shoes with good arch support and cushioning can help reduce pressure on the feet and improve comfort and stability.

  • Physical Therapy: Stretching and strengthening exercises may be prescribed to improve foot and ankle strength, flexibility, and range of motion, as well as to correct biomechanical imbalances and improve gait mechanics.

  • Activity Modification: Avoiding high-impact activities or prolonged standing may help reduce symptoms and prevent exacerbation of flat feet.


Surgical Treatment: In cases where conservative measures fail to provide adequate relief or if the flat feet are causing significant functional limitations or pain, surgical intervention may be considered. Surgical procedures for flat feet aim to reconstruct the arches of the feet, realign the bones and soft tissues, and improve overall foot function. Common surgical interventions for flat feet include:

  • Tendon Lengthening or Transfer: Lengthening or transferring tendons in the foot and ankle can help rebalance muscle forces and improve arch support.

  • Osteotomy: Surgical cutting or realignment of the bones in the foot may be performed to correct structural abnormalities and improve foot alignment.

  • Arthrodesis: Fusion of the joints in the foot may be recommended to stabilize the foot and improve its overall function.


It's important for individuals with flat feet to consult with a healthcare professional to determine the most appropriate treatment approach based on their specific needs, symptoms, and lifestyle factors. In may cases flat feet can be managed with orthotics, stretching, education and proper shoe gear. Many people with flat feet live normal lives and are able to do the things that they want to do with little to no pain. With proper diagnosis and treatment, most individuals with flat feet can experience significant improvement in symptoms and maintain an active and healthy lifestyle.


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